Teaching Methodology: Methods and Principles

Teaching Methodology
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Teaching Methodology

Teaching Methodology

There are different types of teaching methods which can be categorized into four broad types.

  • Teacher-centered methods,
  • Learner-centered methods,
  • Content-focused methods and
  • Interactive/participative methods.


Instructor/Teacher Centered Methods

Here the teacher casts himself/herself in the role of being a master of the subject matter. The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority.  Learners, on the other  hand,are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of knowledge from the teacher.

Learner-Centered Methods

In learner-centered methods, the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. In the words of Lawrence Stenhouse, the teacher plays a dual role as a learner as well “so that in his classroomextends rather than constricts his intellectual horizons”.

Content-Focused Methods

In this category of methods, both the teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught. Generally, this means the information and skills to be taught are regarded as sacrosanct or very important.

A lot of emphases are laid on the clarity and careful analyses of content. Both the teacher and the learnerscannot alter or become criticalof anything to do with the content.

 Interactive/Participative Methods

This fourth category borrows a bit from the three other methods without necessarily laying emphasis unduly on the learner, content or teacher. These methods are driven by the situational analysis of what is the most appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and the teacher. They require a participatory understanding of varied domains and factors.


A formal or semi-formal discourse in which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships.

 It creates new ideas. It is good for a large class. Students give their views at the  end  of the lecture. The teacher is experienced and has mastery on the subject, explain all points and can answer all questionsraised by students.Students can ask if they need any clarification.


  • To orient students.
  • To introduce a subject.
  • To give directions on procedures. To present basic material.
  • To introduce a demonstration, discussion or performance.
  • To illustrate the application of rules, principles, or concepts.
  • To review, clarifies, emphasize or summarize


  • Saves time
  • Permits flexibility.
  • requires less rigid space requirement. Permits adaptability.
  • Permits versatility.
  • Permits better centre over contact and sequence.


  • Involves one-way communication Poses problems in skill teaching.
  •  Encourages   student   passiveness.
  • Poses difficulty in gauging studentreaction. 
  • Require highly skilled instructors.


A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives.

 Students listen to other’s opinion& express Discusswith teachers the points that were Students learn on their own & find out key ideas. Students exchange their ideas. Students get point of view of all and not on after discussion when students give their ideas teacher corrects their mistakes. Students can make their own notes.


  • To develop imaginative solutions to problem To stimulate thinking and interest and to se To emphasize main teaching points.
  • Determine how well the student understands concepts and principle To prepare students for application of the theory of procedure.
  • To supplement lectures, reading & laboratory exercises. To summarize, clarify points or review.



  • Increase student’s interest
  • Increases students’ acceptance and commitment Utilizes student knowledge and experience.
  • Results in more permanent learning because high degree of student participation.


  • Require highly skilled instructor.
  • requires preparation by the student.
  • Limits content.
  • Consumes time.
  • restricts the size of groups.


  • A method of self-instruction
  •  provide remedial instruction.
  • To provide make-up instruction for late arrivals,absentees, or transients.
  • Maintain previously learned skills which are not performedfrequently enough.
  • To provide retraining on equipment and procedures which have become obsolete.
  • Upgrade production.
  • Accelerate capable students.
  • Provide enough common background among students.
  • To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills.



  • Reduce failure rate.
  • Improves end-of-course proficiency.
  • Saves time.
  • Provides for self-instruction.


  • Require local or commercial
  • Preparation.
  • Requires lengthy programmer training.
  • Increases expenses.
  • Requires considerable lead time.


  • A method in which the instructor assignsreading to books,periodicals, project or research papers or exercises for the practice.
  •  To orient students to a topic prior to classroom or Laboratory work.
  • It enhances the ability of research on any topic as the student’s search topic from different books, webs Active learning
  • To set the stage for a lecture demonstration or discussion.
  • To provide for or capitalize on individual differences in ability, background, or experience through differed
  • To provide for the review of material covered in class or to give practice.
  • To provide enrichment material.

The Tutorial Method

  • A method of instruction in which an instructor works directly with an individual student.
  • To reach highly complicated skills operations or operations involving danger or expensive equipment.
  • Provide individualized remedial assistance


  • A tutorial arrangement involving the instructor and groups, rather than instructor
  • To providegeneral guidance for a group working on an advancedstudy or research project.
  • To exchangeinformation on techniques and approaches being explored by members of a study or research group.
  • To developnew and imaginative solutions to problems under study by the group.


A method of instruction wherethe instructor by actually performing an operation or doing a job showsthe students what to do, how to do it, and throughexplanations brings out why, where, and when it is done.

  • To teach manipulative operations or procedures.
  • To teach troubleshooting.
  • To illustrate principles.
  • To teach operation or functioning of equipment.
  • To teach teamwork.
  • To set standards of workmanship.
  • To teach safety procedures


  • More interesting
  • More informative
  • Gain knowledge
  • Learning is effective
  • More participation of students
  • Students give their opinion
  • Active learning
  • Creative thinking is encouraged.
  • Students think beyond their knowledge.
  • Everyone gets the chance to express their thoughts.
  • Simple topics can be learnt from different angles.

Role play

  • Interesting method
  • Creative thinking is encouraged.
  • Students think beyond their knowledge.
  • Students enjoy the situation
  • Active learning
  • Easy to learn

Case study

  • Active learning
  • Creative thinking is encouraged.
  • Students think beyond their knowledge.


Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.

(Details on Digital Initiative in Higher Education through NMEICT has been covered in another post) 

Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM)


SWAYAM is an indigenous (Made in India) IT Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Platform for providing best quality education that can be accessed by anyone, anytime and anywhere using the IT system. The Concept of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) involves online delivery of interactive learning content to large number of people simultaneously. It allows sharing of best quality education with everyone, thereby bringing in equity as far as the quality of education is concerned. SWAYAM platform is developed by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) with the help of Microsoft.

It’s ultimately capable of hosting 2000 courses and 80000 hours of learning: covering school, undergraduate, post-graduate, engineering, law and other professional courses. All the courses on this platform are interactive, prepared by the best teachers in the country and are available, free of cost to the students in India.

SWAYAM Prabha: the 32 Educational DTH Channels

The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 DTH channels devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite. Every day, there will be new content for at least (4) hours which would be repeated 5 more times in a day, allowingthe students to choose the time of their convenience. The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar. The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERTand NIOS. The INFLIBNET Centre maintains the web portal.


Traditional education, also known as back-to- basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in schools. The back-to-basics traditional education method, also known as ‘chalk & talk method’ This old fashioned way of teaching was all about the recitation and memorization techniques.

The traditional role of teaching focuses on the teacher as organizers  of  learning  activity, providers of information and experts of knowledge. The teacher carries too  much  of  responsibility for teaching in the classroom to make sure everything they are teaching is understood by the students. Teacher is also responsible to control class where the  teacher teaches using blackboard, explains concepts, asks students to  copy  and  makes  sure  that students are paying attention This technique of teaching is a one-way Follow of information in which the teacher often continuously talks for an hour or more expecting that when he asks a question, the students will able to reproduce the same thing that he was talking about.


Gone are the days of blackboard and chalk …it all replaced by LCD Projectors & interactive whiteboards in the classroom. When we talk about the modern or ICT based education system  it’sinclude full fledgedusages of high tech equipmentin the educational institutions.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education is the mode of education that uses information and communications technology to support, enhance, and optimize the delivery of information.

Below are few key teaching techniques based on Modern and ICT Based teaching methods.

Flipped Classroom – It’s allowingstudents to go beyond their normal boundaries and explore the lesson before teacher describes them in class-room.

Design Thinking & Creative ideas – This involves real life case to increase the curiosity, analytical skills and creativity.

Mind Maps – Use of self-learning tools

Gamification – Learn through the play using quizzes and hunt ideas

Free online Learning Tools

ICT Based TeachingMethods – VirtualReality , VirtualLabs , Open educational Resources

Learning Management system (LMS) & Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

Evaluation system

In any education system evaluation is a critical part. Evaluation basically means the judgment about the student by the teacher, but these judgment is really, really tough. Evaluation is an interwoven activity in the process of teaching and learning. Nowadays evaluation by using the multiple-choice questions type is better than the broad question.

Principles of evaluation

Student evaluation in the teaching-learning processes must be well planned, goal oriented and continuous. One piece of paper cannotevaluate a student’s ability. So it isbetter that evaluation must be done inside the classroom throughout the semester. Following are some rules regarding evaluation.

  • The processof evaluation should be informedproperly to all the student
  • Evaluation must be continuous process.
  • Evaluation should be sensitiveto learners and must not be biased.
  • At the end of the day evaluation must be reliablejudgment to student

Difference between evaluation and assessment

In teaching-learning process. The terms evaluation and assessment are used interchangeably, but there is some inherent difference between these two terms.


Assessment is a preliminary phase in the evaluation process. A student can be  assessed by using the multiple sources like  class  test,  assignment,  presentations, quiz, brainstorming session.


Evaluation is the action in the entireprocess that allowsteachers to make a judgment based on assessment records with reference to learning objectives. Assessment without evaluation has no purpose. Following are the different evaluation techniques.

  • Written test
  • Classroom activities
  • Assignment
  • Project tasks
  • Laboratory activities
  • Social activities
  • Normally, there are four types of evaluation
  • Criteria referenced evaluation:
  • Formative evaluation
  • Norm referenced evaluation
  • Summative evolution


As already mentioned above, most of the educational institutions follow marks or percentage based evaluation systems which restrict the students to take up  the  subject  or  the  course of their choice. Our educational system should be flexible that is, the student must get a choice to study his/her course/subject of interest.

It can only be possible if the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) are being introduced. The CBCS opens up many opportunities and path for the students to learn and explore not only the subject of their choice but beyond which also develops ones individual self. These courses can further be evaluated through grading system, which is considered to be better than the age old marking system. It is better if we introduce and follow the uniform grading system across India which will further help the students to move across institutions within India and across countries.

Read Also: Research Methodolgy- Elements of Resesrchhttps://www.buffalo.edu/catt/develop/design/teaching-methods.html

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