Teaching Aptitude: Objectives & Characteristics

Teaching Aptitude 1
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Teaching Aptitude

Teaching Aptitude Nature Objectives Characteristics



·Teaching is a process in which one individual teaches or instruct another individual. Teaching is considered as the act of imparting instructions to the learners in the classroom situation. It is watching systematically.

· Dewey: –

 considers it as a manipulation of the situation, where the learner will acquire skills and insight with his initiation.


The objective of Teaching

·Acquisition of knowledge

·Development of Understanding

·Development of Conceptual, intellectual and subject-specific skills

·Development of values values.

Levels of Teaching ( Memory, Understanding, and Reflective)

1.Memory level: Thoughtless teaching

2.Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching

3.Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level


1.  Memory level of teaching

 It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental abilitythat exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,

·         The thinking ability does not play any role.

·         Students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.

·         theteaching is nothingbut learning the subject matterby rote.[Bigge, Morris L(1967)]

·         Therole of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.

·         The study material is organized and pre-planned. The teacher presentsthe study materialin a sequentialorder.

·         Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.


Merits of memory level teaching

 1.Useful for childrenat lower classes.This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.

2.The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.

3.The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e. when student’s intelligence and thinking is required.

4.Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching.    It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.

Demerits of memory level teaching

 1.       This does not contribute to the development of the student’scapabilities.

2.       Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real lifesituations as it does not develops the talents of students.

3.       The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.

4.       Intelligence does not carry any importancein this type of teachingand it lacks motivation

 2. Understanding            level

 Understanding something is to perceive the meaning, grasp the idea and comprehend the meaning. In the field of Education and Psychology, the meaning of ‘understanding’ can be classified as

·         seeing the total use of facts

·         seeing relationship

·         a generalized insight

 The teaching at the understanding level is of a higher quality than the one at the memory level. It is more useful and thoughtful from the point of view of mental capabilities. At this level of teaching, the teacher explains the student about the relationship between principles and facts    and teaches them how these principles can be applied.  Memory level teaching barrier is essential to be crossed for this level of teaching.


Merits of the understanding level of teaching

 1.         At this level of teaching studentsto make use of their thinking abilities.

2.    Knowledge acquiredat this level forms the basis of the reflective level of teaching.

3.     Here the teacher presents subjectmatter before the students in an organized and sequential form. The new knowledge acquired is related to the previously acquired knowledge.

4.    Here the students do not learn by rote. Here they learn by understanding the facts and information and their use and purpose.


Demerits of the understanding level of teaching

 1.     Teaching at this levelis subject centered. There is no interaction betweenthe teacher and students at this level.

2.     This type of teaching mastery is emphasized.


3.     Reflective level of teaching

 This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.

·         Reflective levelof teaching is considered to be the highest level at which teaching is carried out. 

·         It is highly thoughtful and useful.

·         A student can attain this level only after going through memory                                         level and understanding level.

·     Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problemsof life.

·         At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem.

 ·         At this level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it and finding a solution to it. The student’s originalthinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.

·         The role of the teacher in this levelof teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.

·         The role of the students is quite active.

·         Reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.


Merits of reflective level teaching

1.       The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is leaner-centered.

2.       There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflectivelevel teaching.

3.       At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.

4.       At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.

 Demerits of reflective level teaching

1.       Not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children

2.       At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematicand organized knowledgeof their study courses.

Characteristics of teaching:-

1.   The main character of teaching is to provide guidance and training.

2.   Teaching is interaction between teacher and students.

3.   Teaching is an art to give knowledge to students with effective way.

4.   Teaching is a science to educate fact and causes of different topics of different subjects.

5.   Teaching is continues process.

6.   Teacher can teach effectively, if he has full confidence on the subject.

7.   Teaching encourages students to learn more and more.

8.   Teaching is formal as well as informal

9.   Teaching is communication of information to students. In teaching, teacher imparts information in interesting way so that students can easily understand the information.

10.   Teaching is tool to help student to adjust himself in society and its environment.




The Learner

The Subject (Topic)


Learner’s Characteristics


Academic characteristics of learners include the education type, education level and knowledge.

In young adolescents, intellectual development is not as visible as physical development, but it is just as intense. During early adolescence, youth exhibit a wide range of individual intellectual development, including meta-cognition and independent thought.


Adolescent social development is often described as the process of establishing a sense of identity and establishing a role and purpose. It is an outward sense of oneself. Body image is a key factor in developing a sense of self and identity, especially for girls, and the family and increasingly peers play an important role assisting and supporting the adolescent to achieve adult roles.


The way a person thinks and feels about themselves and others, their inward thoughts, is key to their emotional development. Adolescents shifts moods rapidly and can  become  rebellious toward adults. They are sensitiveto criticism and easily get offended.


Cognition is the process involving thought, rationale and perception. The physical changes of  the brain that occur during adolescence follow typical patterns of cognitive development. They are characterized by the development of higher-level cognitive functioning that aligns with the changes in brain structureand function, particularly in the prefrontalcortex region.


Characteristics of Good Learner:-

·         Curious

·         Carefully understanding

·         Social and personalqualities

·         Willingness to learn

·         Interests and attitude of learner

·         Easily adjustment tochange

·         Internal motivation

·         Learning power

·         Nervousness

·         Application of mind and creativity

·         Social and culturalbackground

Factors affecting teaching:


Teacher – Teacher plays an important role in the teaching-learning process as facilitator of learning. 

By adoptingthe best teachingtechniques and efficient methods a teachcould explore the right talent of the learners to help them towards quality learning process.

It depends on the various factors of teacher-

·         Educational Qualification

·         Skills

·         Experience

·         Subject matter


Learner – Learning is most effective when the differences in learner’s language, cultural and social behaviors are taken into account, it’s necessary to take note of intelligence, ethnic group, race, belief and socioeconomic status of the learners which can influence the teaching in the class room. Every individual is different with others in the terms of physical, social and cultural orientation; these aspects make learner different from one another 


Environment and other factors

·         Support materials

·         Instructional facilities

·         Learning environment

       Class-room environments

       Socio-economic factor


 ·         Institution – 

Teacher is abiding by administrative policy of the institution affecting the learning process. There are chances that Teacher want to deliver in a way he loves to  do but the institute policy don’t allow him to use his own method. This leads to dissatisfaction in teachercausing learning processto slow down.

 NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) in its publication Core Teaching

Skills (1982) have laid stress on the following teaching skills.

·         Writing instructional objectives

·         Organizing the content

·         Creating set for introducing the lesson

·         Introducing a lesson

·         Structuring classroom questions

·         Question delivery and its distribution

·         Response management

·         Explaining

·         Illustrating with examples

·         Using teaching aids

·         Stimulus variation

·         Pacing of the lesson

·         Promoting pupil participation

·         Use of blackboard

·         Achieving closure of the lesson

·         Giving assignments

·         Evaluating the pupil’s progress

·         Diagnosing pupil learningdifficulties and taking remedial measures

·         Management of theclass


Micro Teaching


1.Micro-teaching is a product of research at Stanford University. It was first adopted in    1961 by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers. It implies micro-element that systematically attempts to simplify the complexities of the teaching process. Teaching is a complex process. It cannot be mastered in a rigid and general setting. So it is analyzed into well- defined components that can be practiced, taught and evaluated.

2.Micro-teaching concentrates on specific teachingbehaviors and providesopportunity for practicing teachingunder controlled conditions. So through micro-teaching, the behavior of the teacher and pupil is modified and the teaching-learning process is more effective by the skill training.

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